Update 7/26/2016. FULL 911 Good Samaritan Legislation in Michigan

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Great news!!

Both 911 Good Samaritan Bills have made it out of the Michigan Senate Judiciary Committee.

Now is the time to contact your State Senator and ask her/him to vote yes on these bills.

Find the contact info for your State Senator here.

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(The rest of this post was originally posted 5/12/2016. It is provided here for background.)

Good news!!!

There are 2 bills in the Michigan House of Representatives Criminal Justice Committee that would would provide immunity from criminal charges for people all ages who are seeking emergency medical assistance for themselves or friends as a result of a drug overdose from any illicit drug.

Rep. Pscholka’s bill, House Bill 5649, provides immunity from possession penalties in certain circumstances.

Rep. Singh’s bill, House Bill 5650, provides immunity from use penalties in certain circumstances.

These bills expand upon last years House Bill 4843 by removing limitations based on age and type of drug.

The House Criminal Justice Committee will be taking up these bills on Tuesday, May 17, 2016 at 9:00 AM in Room 327, House Office Building, Lansing, MI.

Contact the House Criminal Justice Committee to let them know you support these bills.

Background

The Facts

Keep these facts in mind:

  • Overdose is now the leading cause of accidental death in the U.S. Most of these overdose deaths are due to opioids.
  • If help arrives in time, overdoses can be safely and quickly reversed with a squirt of naloxone up the patient’s nose.
  • More than half of all overdoses occur in the presence of other people, usually other drug users.
  • Too often, people do not call 911 in a timely manner due to fear of arrest for possession of drugs.

A First Step

At the urging of parents who have lost children to overdose, the Michigan legislature made some good first steps last year. They enacted laws that increased access to naloxone, the drug that reverses overdoses.

On October 13, 2014, Public Acts 311, 312, 313 and 314 of 2014 were signed into law.

These acts will:

  • Allow Narcan to be prescribed to friends and family of heroin addicts, so it’s readily available in the event of an overdose.
  • Protect a person administering Narcan in good faith to be immune from criminal prosecution or professional sanctions.
  • Require emergency medical personnel to carry the drug in their vehicles and be trained in how to administer it.
  • Require the state Department of Community Health to complete annual reports of opioid-related overdose deaths.

Another Step

Last summer, Michigan Rep. Al Pscholka (R-Stevensville) introduced House Bill 4843, a bipartisan measure, that would create Good Samaritan protections for individuals under the age of 21 who seek medical attention for themselves or another person believed to have overdosed. However, the Good Samaritan protections are limited to the illegal possession of prescription drugs (in quantities consistent with personal use) for people under the age of 21.

Last December the Governor signed the Good Samaritan Bill, House Bill 4843, into law.

911 Good Samaritan Laws

NARCAN-KITThe Drug Policy Alliance provides a really good summary of 911 Good Samaritan laws:

Accidental overdose deaths are now the leading cause of accidental death in the United States, exceeding even motor vehicle accidents among people ages 25 to 64. Many of these deaths are preventable if emergency medical assistance is summoned, but people using drugs or alcohol illegally often fear arrest if they call 911,  even in cases where they need emergency medical assistance for a friend or family member at the scene of a suspected overdose.The best way to encourage overdose witnesses to seek medical helpis to exempt them from arrest and prosecution for minor drug and alcohol law violations, an approach often referred to as Good Samaritan 911.

The chance of surviving an overdose, like that of surviving a heart attack, depends greatly on how fast one receives medical assistance. Witnesses to heart attacks rarely think twice about calling 911, but witnesses to an overdose often hesitate to call for help or, in many cases, simply don’t make the call. In fact, research confirms the most common reason people cite for not calling 911 is fear of police involvement.

It’s important to know that this is not a liberal vs. conservative or Republican vs. Democrat issue. Some of the reddest and the bluest states in the country have passed 911 Good Samaritan laws.

Twenty states and the District of Columbia have enacted policies to provide limited immunity from arrest or prosecution for minor drug law violations for people who summon help at the scene of an overdose. New Mexico was the first state to pass such a policy and has been joined in recent years by Alaska, California, ColoradoConnecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, LouisianaMaryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, Vermont, Washington and Wisconsin.

Further, these laws don’t protect dangerous or predatory criminals.

Good Samaritan laws do not protect people from arrest for other offenses, such as selling or trafficking drugs, or driving while drugged. These policies protect only the caller and overdose victim from arrest and/or prosecution for simple drug possession, possession of paraphernalia, and/or being under the influence.

The Bad News

An overdose is a major medical crisis, right? It’s not unlike a heart attack.

Here’s what happens when someone has a heart attack41KSA2GA12L._SX300_

  1. A person has a heart attack at the grocery store and . . .
  2.  . . . thank goodness, the store has an automatic defibrillator.
  3. Someone has been trained to use the defibrillator and performs the rescue.
  4. Someone else calls 911 to make sure the patient gets all the care they need.
  5. The patient is taken to the emergency department and medically stabilized.
  6. Once stabilized, the patient gets transferred to care that will address the cause of the heart attack and/or care that will prevent future heart attacks.
  7. The patient’s treatment plan will generally include lifestyle changes. (Diet, exercise, etc.)
  8. Then, the patient gets follow-up care that might include:
    • follow up appointments with specialists,
    • periodic tests to monitor for indicators of a recurrence,
    • self-monitoring (blood pressure), and
    • monitoring by the patient’ primary care physician.
  9. If problems recur or there are indications of a potential recurrence, the care plan will be re-evaluated and the patient will get whatever care they need.

Here’s what happens when someone ODs and is rescuednarcan

  1. A person overdoses and . . .
  2.  . . . thank goodness, the someone has naloxone.
  3. The person has been trained to use naloxone and performs the rescue.

Maybe, if they are lucky, these steps happen.

  1. Someone else calls 911 to make sure the patient gets all the care they need.
  2. The patient is taken to the emergency department and medically stabilized.

Naloxone is not enough.

We’d never tolerate cardiac patients being sent home without the proper care. Why should people with an addiction be treated any differently?

The good news

The good news is that there are models that work.

The Gold Standard

A male doctor writes on a patients chart.The best example of what should happen is the the kind of care that opioid addicted doctors, nurses, pilots and lawyers get. They all have low relapse rates and return to work at very high rates.

Here’s what would happen if one of them overdosed at work (or if it was known to their employer):

First, the recovery planning begins with some important assumptions:

  • abstinence is the goal;
  • full recovery with a return to full functioning is the expectation;
  • addiction is a chronic illness and recovery requires long term treatment, support and monitoring; and
  • for recovery to be durable, the addict must be an active participant in treatment and recovery maintenance.

Signpost along the road to recovery.The recovery plan is likely to include the following:

  • Formal treatment. The first phase of formal addiction treatment for most of these professionals is residential care ranging from 30 to 90 days.
  • Supportive services. Supportive services used by these professionals includes AA or NA 12-step groups, aftercare groups from their formal treatment programs, and follow-up from case managers.
  • Long-term support and monitoring. After completion of initial formal addiction treatment, they develop a continuing care contract consisting of support, counseling, and monitoring for usually 2 to 5 years.
  • Drug testing. Regular testing for 2 to 5 years, usually with more frequent testing at the start and reduced testing following periods of stable negative drug test results.
  • Dealing with relapse. Relapses are usually addressed by a combination of increased intensity of care and monitoring and by immediately informing family and colleagues of the physician to enlist their support.

Other options

Buprenorphine (Suboxone) and methadone have been shown to reduce drug use, overdose risk, criminal activity and disease transmission.

Some people are able to stabilize and live normal lives on these medications but, at this point, there is no research demonstrating its effectiveness with quality of life indicators like employment.

Many people hope to use these drugs as an interim step toward abstinence. However, there is no established model for successfully transitioning buprenorphine and methadone patients to abstinence. A large federally-funded study attempting to do this reported, “near universal relapse.”

Another option is an injectable drug called Vivitrol. It is injected once per month and can protect against overdose. Unfortunately, it’s very expensive.

Which to choose?

Hope Traffic SignThe gold standard offers a path to full recovery, but it does demand a lot of structure, effort and lifestyle changes.

Many professionals prefer drug maintenance as a goal. It’s an easier plan to implement and many professionals are not confident that their patients are capable of drug-free recovery. (Look for professionals that are optimistic and believe in you ability to achieve full recovery.)

However, most patients and families, for a wide variety of reasons, prefer abstinence as a goal–the most common reason is that they want their life back the way it was before they became addicted.

Patients not sticking with the treatment plan is the biggest barrier to success with both approaches.

It’s harder than it should be

Getting the gold standard for yourself or a family member is likely to be very difficult. But, there are steps you can take to improve the odds.

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